According to a 2018 NitiAayog study, by 2025, the per capita availability of water is set to decline to 1,465 cubic metres from 1,544 m3 in 2011.The country may have to face problems associated with water scarcity which will range from health issues to poor sanitation and water-conflicts, to food security and climate change, if appropriate and immediate measures are not taken.
The Central Pollution Control Boardsays that India will need 1.5 trillion m3 water by 2010.Recycling and reuse of treated wastewater is the proposed alternative to India’s growing water crisis.The reuse of wastewater for various purposes like horticulture and flushing is emphasized upon. There are also central urban development schemes like Jal Shakti Abhiyan, Swachh Bharat Mission, Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation(AMRUT), Smart Cities Mission and NamamiGange, that are significant for wastewater management.
Around 80% of the water supplied to a household is discharged as wastewater. It can potentially pollute groundwater or natural drainage system, and cause pollution in downstream areas and water bodies.A decentralized wastewater management approach is considered as a sustainable and cost-effective alternative as it discharges or reuses the waste in the relative areas of its source of generation.
Decentralized wastewater treatment is a great alternative for places that are not connected to sewer networks as well as the newly developed ones.The different scales of decentralization based on the size of the served area are decentralization at a suburb level, decentralization at a neighbourhood level and decentralization at ‘on-site’ level.
The need for decentralized wastewater solutions is highlighted by the socio-economic situation and the context of urbanization. The local reuse and recycling of treated wastewater play a major role in the overall urban environmental sustainability.